This is a post I wrote that originally appeared as a guest post on The Polyglot Dream website. I though it might be useful to many of you, and I'd love to hear what you think about it. Enjoy!
Bob and Jack were two lumberjacks, each given an area of about 10 acres of thick, old growth forest to cut for the year. They were each paid a fixed amount of money for each tree cut, and both had the same equipment and experience in this field of work. Incentives to finish the work faster included a bonus pay for the person that could finish cutting down all 10 acres of forest first.
At the beginning of the year, in early January, Bob was motivated and full of energy, ready to cut down these trees faster than anybody else. His axe was slightly old and rusty, just as Jack’s, but it had served him well for many years. Although Bob was a lazy man, just as the average Joe, he knew his motivation could get him far. And so he began working in earnest, cutting down his first little tree in a matter of minutes. Bob liked to start with easy tasks first, build up his momentum, and keep going strong for long periods of time. It had worked fairly well for him in the past. On the first day, Bob managed to cut 10 trees, and proceeded to earn a fairly decent sum of money. Bob was, for the most part, willing to work hard when he could see immediate results.
Jack, on the other hand, didn’t cut any tree on the first day. In fact, he didn’t cut a single tree for the first entire week. “What on earth could he possibly be doing?”, Bob wondered. Well, Jack was busy reading, at first. Although he had plenty of experience cutting trees, he felt he needed to delve deeper into specific techniques that he had neglected to refine. While he had a decent amount of experience cutting trees, he had never actually learned how to cut trees.
And so he proceeded to learn the science behind lumberjacking. He got to know how trees grew, which kinds of wood were softer or harder, easier to bend or crack, and at which angle cutting each type of wood worked best for faster results. Most importantly, though, Jack spent a great deal of time sharpening his good old axe. He meticulously sharpened the blade; it became sort of an obsession; he left nothing to chance. He wanted to ensure that the blade would have an optimal cutting ability, and that it would retain its sharpness for as long as possible. After one intensive week of hard study and axe sharpening, he was ready to get down to his business.
By the end of August, Jack had already finished chopping down all of the trees that had grown on his 10 acres of allotted land. Bob was shocked in disbelief. “You’re a genius,” he told Jack. “You’re obviously gifted in lumberjacking. You were born with the lumberjacking gene for sure,” he added. Jack nodded and smiled, and proceeded to relax and drink beer until the end of the year, while Bob was busy chopping down the rest of the trees.
To chop a tree quickly, spend twice the time sharpening your ax
What does this parable teach us? Well, the story of the two lumberjacks exemplifies what I term the “laziness paradox”. We, mere mortals, are often too lazy investing present time and effort for the benefit of our future. Even if these benefits might outweigh the actual costs 100:1, laziness precludes us from doing so. The laziness paradox, then, is that by not spending enough time sharpening your axe, it will, in the long run, take you much, much more time and effort chopping down the forest. And it will cost you a lot of money. It seems counterintuitive, but working hard and being lazy are not mutually exclusive, although this is what most of us have been led to believe. Working or learning smart, on the other hand, is the path of the productive and efficient.
As best-selling author and language enthusiast Tim Ferriss says in his New York Times bestseller “The 4-hour workweek”: “Slow down and remember this: Most things make no difference. Being busy is a form of laziness—lazy thinking and indiscriminate action. Being overwhelmed is often as unproductive as doing nothing, and is far more unpleasant. Being selective—doing less—is the path of the productive.”
Let me give you a few examples. I recently wrote on my blog, lingholic, 12 tips on how to drastically improve your memory. Spending the necessary amount of time learning serious memory techniques, even if to really internalize these techniques and have them ready-to-use on demand could take a few months, is probably the best decision you could ever make— not only if you are serious about studying languages, but also if you are serious about being successful and about learning and acquiring pretty much any knowledge effectively. It took “Moonwalking with Einstein” author Joshua Foer a year of practice in order to win the U.S. Memory Championship. Imagine the things you could achieve by having a memory 100 times more powerful than the one you have now.
The art of Memory
When Dominic O’Brien, eight time world memory champion, was still in school, he just about managed to scrape through with passes in French and Spanish. “I can't help feeling slightly resentful today about the way I was taught. The ability and good intention of my teachers is not in doubt, but I bitterly regret the methods they used,” he says in “How to Develop a Perfect Memory”. After having internalized memory techniques (mostly mnemonics, association, and the method of loci), he managed to learn and actually remember 320 new German words in an hour (after one sighting of each word), his personal best. At the 1991 World Memory Championship (yes, there is such a thing), he won the language event by memorizing the most number of Chinese words in fifteen minutes. Not bad for a dyslexic slow learner.
O’Brien asserts that, when using proper memory techniques (techniques that, by the way, anybody can learn and apply), foreign words can be learned and memorized after just one reading at an accelerated rate of approximately 50 to 150 words per hour. This means that a basic vocabulary of 2,000 words could be learned after just twenty hours' study. In English, the 2000 most common words account for 80% of the individual words in any English text (Cobb, 2008). Just like any language, English has the habit of recycling a relatively small number of words over and over again, and if you know these words, then your reading power can be enhanced dramatically for a relatively modest learning investment.
I am not saying, of course, that you can learn a language in the space of 20 hours of study. But I think it is clear that it doesn’t have to take five or ten years of hard work either. Daniel Tammet learned to speak Icelandic within the space of a week, and I wouldn’t be surprised if the techniques he used to achieve such a feat were exactly the ones Dominic has used to win his Chinese word memorizing competition.
The Art of Speed Reading
Another example where spending time sharpening your axe would bring in some serious benefits would be in regards to speed reading. Indeed, by learning a few simple speed reading techniques, and spending a few serious days of work applying and practicing those, you could read two, three, or even five times faster than you are now. Tony Buzan, in “The Speed Reading Book,” notes that people read, on average, 200 to 240 words per minute. The current speed reading world champion is Anne Jones, with 4,700 words per minute with 67% comprehension. That is, of course, nothing short of amazing, but Buzan mentions that with proper training in speed reading techniques, an average person can easily double their reading speed within a short period of time, and eventually reach speeds of around 1000 wpm.
Tim Ferriss, in “The 4-hour workweek,” gives four simple tips on how to read 200% faster in 10 minutes:
1)Two Minutes: Use a pen or finger to trace under each line as you read as fast as possible. Reading is a series of jumping snapshots (called saccades), and using a visual guide prevents regression.
2)Three Minutes: Begin each line focusing on the third word in from the first word, and end each line focusing on the third word in from the last word. This makes use of peripheral vision that is otherwise wasted on margins.
3)Two Minutes: Once comfortable indenting three or four words from both sides, attempt to take only two snapshots—also known as fixations—per line on the first and last indented words.
4)Three Minutes: Practice reading too fast for comprehension but with good technique (the above three techniques) for five pages prior to reading at a comfortable speed. This will heighten perception and reset your speed limit, much like how 50 mph normally feels fast but seems like slow motion if you drop down from 70 mph on the freeway.
How would your life be different if you could read twice the amount of books in less time, and remember information more effectively than you could’ve ever imagined? All it takes is a bit of axe sharpening.
What Are You Waiting For?
The laziness paradox, then, is that we end up working so much harder, so less efficiently, and so much more in the long-term, and I mean so much more, because we are lazy. We are too lazy to review what we study, we are too lazy to learn proper memory techniques, we are too lazy to learn how to learn. In other words, we are all too lazy to sharpen our axes, to invest the time and effort now that will benefit our future. And the sad thing is, I am no exception (although I have made some significant improvements by repeating to myself that being lazy means working much harder in the long-run).
So, what do you think you could do by learning and applying over two thousand year-old memory techniques that have been repeatedly proven to work? How would this change the speed at which you would acquire foreign languages? How would this change the amount of study and review you would need in order to ace your exams at school? How would this change your social life if you’d never forget a name again after being introduced to a person once? Get a couple of post-its, write on them “Remember the laziness paradox” or something similar. And every time your brain feels the need to slack off, take a glance at your post-it and put in the extra effort that will make all the difference for your future endeavors.
Stop working hard and being lazy. Learn how to learn, learn how to memorize, learn how to read, and ride the wave of success in foreign language acquisition, study, and work.
The core question is:
"If memorization techniques are so good, why don't make more students become top students by using them?"
As far as the story about Tammet goes, you forget a few elements. Tammet did use some memorization techniques but they weren't all of it.
Tammet is a born autistic savant and no example of what someone with a normal brain does.
The time he was tested on his knowledge of Icelandic was immedietly after the week of practice, before he had time to forget something about it. Most people who want to learn a language want to keep the skill. Keeping a skill means that you have to continue to spend time with it.
Tammet's skill in Icelandic was impressive for the reporter considering that he only spent one week with Icelandic. Tammet skill however wasn't equivalent to someone who has a vocabulary of 2000 words. At least that's what I heared from an Icelandic about that broadcast.
Harry Lorayne makes the claim that he can remember any name and never forgets any. For most people that's not possible without review. Piotr Wosniak is a good example of someone who spends decades with optimizing his learning and practice who still thinks that you can't achieve such a result with memorization techniques. He advocates their use but doesn't think they are that powerful at prevent forgetting.
Most people who try to double their reading speed using the kind of technqiues Tim Ferriss mentions lose a lot of comprehension.
As far as the World Championships in Speed reading goes, the last time I check it was an event in the UK with 3 participants. Today I can't even find a homepage of the event when I google it. I don't think that it makes sense to draw any reasonable conclusion over the nature of speed reading from the event.
We also seem to lack good peer reviewed research that demonstrates the benefits of both speed reading training and memorization training.
Lastly even if you grant that those skills work if you put in the required practice, putting in the practice isn't "lazy". It's highly cognitively demanding to practice your mind on that level. It's so hard that most people stop very fast and can't bring themselves to do the practice.
Thanks for your response Christian. You make some good points, but I'm not sure you fully understood what was the point of my post. I'm not sure why you're saying that "even if you grant that those skills work if you put in the required practice, putting in the practice isn't 'lazy'." The point of my post was that not spending time "sharpening your axe" (i.e. learning how to learn, learning how to memorize, etc.) is a mistake, and will result in much more work in the long term. Therefore lazy people end up working more because they don't put the required practice that will make knowledge acquisition faster. One of my arguments was that working hard and being lazy are not mutually exclusive. You can refer back to the parable.
Concerning Tammett, he is apparently autistic, yes. Joshua Foer in "Moonwalking with Einstein", however, doubts about his self-proclaimed autistic disorder, and he says that Tammett looks like a totally normal person (which is not normally the case for savants with autistic disorders, such as Kim Peek, AKA "Rain Man"). Moreover, Foer points out that Tammett has said some contradictory things at different interviews concerning his supposed mental abilities. Basically, Foer is doubting whether Tammett is really autistic, or if rather he's just really mastered memory techniques to an amazing level and using the savant card as a publicity stunt. Whatever the answer, there is no denial that Tammett uses memory techniques, and that without these techniques he wouldn't have been able to learn Icelandic in a week.
Most people who try speed reading techniques do lose comprehension. But it has been proven that many people who read at speeds of up to 1000 wpm have a level of comprehension nearly as good as those who read 5 times slower. Of course, if it's your first week speed reading, your comprehension level won't be amazing, but with serious practice this can definitely be improved. In any case, how much of a book do you actually remember a few after reading it? Probably just the main ideas, not the details. And how much does an average reader can comprehend after reading a text? 4,700 words per minute with 67% comprehension is as good as it gets. Most university-educated people I know who read at normal speeds probably have around 70 or 80% comprehension (just a ballpark figure).
As far as speed reading competitions go, you can visit the Memoriad website: http://www.memoriad.com. 89 participants, from 20 different countries, participated in the November 2012 competition.
All in all, I think my point is valid and that it has been proven that investing time in learning how to learn and in learning memory techniques works. I'm sure the people Cal Newport interviewed also spent a lot of time sharpening their axes. Memorization techniques were simply one example out of many to support my point, and I used it especially since my blog deals with language learning, and of course memorizing new words is a big part of learning a new language.
Hope this answers your questions! Thanks again for spending the time to answer my post.
I appreciate your article and agree that time invested in preparation is wisdom. The military and folks in sports seem to agree, based on energies and time capital invested.
Appears that some like to dispute with much verbal masterbation!
Joshua Foer in "Moonwalking with Einstein", however, doubts about his self-proclaimed autistic disorder, and he says that Tammett looks like a totally normal person
Socializing is a skill that some people with autism can learn. I know someone whom I judged the first time I meet him as autist based on mode language before he opened his mouth. I later heared that he's clincially diagnosed. That person is now one of the people I now personally with one of the most impressive social skills I know.
Tammett facial expressions don't look "normal" to me on the videos I saw (I never meet him in person). I don't see the emotions in his face that a "normal" person has.
As far as Tammett goes, his way of teaching "native" math suggest that he doesn't deal with numbers in any normal way. The mindset that he demostrates in his books also looks very "unnormal".
As far as being a bit contradictory in interviews, who isn't? When you have to repeat something 4 times till it's fits the format that the journalist wants to hear and is simplifiied enough, you contradict yourself from time to time. A journalist takes a 2 hour interview and broadcasts 1 minute of it. Things get taken out of context.
But it has been proven that many people who read at speeds of up to 1000 wpm have a level of comprehension nearly as good as those who read 5 times slower.
Proven by whom?
As far as speed reading competitions go, you can visit the Memoriad website:http://www.memoriad.com. 89 participants, from 20 different countries, participated in the November 2012 competition.
"Welcome to the Official website of MEMORIAD™, World Memory, Mental Calculation & Photographic Speed Reading Olympiads." ... (*) In 2012 Photographic Speed Reading Competition was not held. This category will take place in Memoriad 2016.
Which leaves the question: To which events do those 4,700 wpm with 67% comprehension refer?
I'm sure the people Cal Newport interviewed also spent a lot of time sharpening their axes.
Sharing your axe is not being buzy reading.
Memorization techniques were simply one example out of many to support my point, and I used it especially since my blog deals with language learning, and of course memorizing new words is a big part of learning a new language.
If that's your topic why don't you use examples of your own memorization performance to make some of your points? Even if you are better than the average person at learning languages your own experience is likely to be more informing than pointing to stunts.
Most of the books I've read lately are drilling this point and drilling this point hard: 4 hour chef, the art of learning, Ikigai, they all tell you something that everyone overlooks: Strategy beats tactics every time. the best way to think about it is using a car to drive from LA to New york is dumb, the better strategy is to use an airplane. you can try to drive you car faster (use better tactics) but in the end, no matter how fast your car goes, the plane will most likely be a more effective method.
Another good analogy straight out of art of learning is say your a manager and and you have 20 employees and a set up system. You could tell each employee to go faster and save 1 minute each, saving you 20 minutes per hr making your more money, or you instead try to engineer a better system through technology or otherwise and save your the same or more time without having to exhaust your workers.
Same thing happens with most life skills that could be easily handled with a bit of managing. Think about how much of an effect reading faster can have on your whole life? how much of an effect can greater memory have on your whole life? its crazy.
Totally agree with the above. As a true 'Jack' (reading the first part of the article was like some deity figured me out and put it in print) I think a lot of people spend most of their time just pressing the pedal hard and running their gears but have the whole thing set to Neutral so they don't get anywhere. Effort is just wasted effort if it's not deliberate and focused. Though I think the 'get up and go' approach does work for a lot of people and I think is better in certain situations (i.e. pickup) for some other problems optimal research and defining a solid optimal plan of action + following thru will make the tortoise totally blaze the hare in the great race.
In pickup the equivalent of practicing speed reading or doing memorization exercises is to practice approaching. There are even a bunch of specific approach exercises that you can do that are just practice and don't exist to produce direct results.
You won't get any skill in any of the three categories by spending much time with digesting theory.
As I've been immersing myself in poker, I've been overwhelmed by the parallels with pickup, in theory, practice, and in my experience as a student.
I'm not sure if this is pure coincidence, my mind trying to find a pattern where there's not one, or a genuine underlying pattern that probably extends to other areas of learning.
Pickup is the only other thing I can think of that I learned rapidly and by immersion. I made it my world for a year or two. As a result, I remember the learning process, whereas something like web development I can't really remember because I've been learning gradually.
A lot of my friends joke around and say I'm high all the time. I've never smoked anything in my life. They say this because of how happy and child-like I always am, intrigued by the most random things, making hypothetical statements and laughing at random events for no reason. At the same time I place very high value in logic and rationality, and always try to understand what I'm doing and the world around me. As I have mentioned many times before in my blog, one of the things I hold to high standards, possibly the highest, is strategy. A lot of people talk about about Ideas, and Vision, but in fact I've found the best indicator of success to be a good strategy. The truth is strategy isn't only about achieving something, it can also come into play in just controlling how you feel, whether you get that raise or not, and in general whether you live the life you want. There is a strategy for everything.
One of the interesting things about strategy though is how they overlap into different overarching levels of reach. in other words, some strategies effect others, some don't, and some take priority. For example, you might have a strategy in play in regards to how you learn languages, but you might have another strategy in play as to how you determine what you want. If you don't want to learn a new language at the moment the strategy you have for learning languages is not in question, or in some cases, not even worth creating. In this case, you can extrapolate the value of strategy, strategy lets you decide what path to take, it allows you to clear your head, and determine WHAT you are going to tackle, and then HOW you are going to decide (WHAT you do is infintely more important in strategy, although for general happiness and such HOW you do something is much more important, read Flow for more on this. although how you go about doing something can be a strategy in and of itself).
There was a post on SETT a while back about how two newbie lumberjacks where going to go cut trees and one just gets his axe and goes for it, and the other sits down and reads a book on how to cut trees and sharpen his axe. it took the second lumberjack 2-3 days to probably read the book and get ready to cut trees, the first lumberjack had already cut 12 trees. but by the end of the week they were even, and by the end of the month the other lumberjack was 30-40 trees ahead.
Ultimately taking time to sit down and determine how you are going to tackle something (and for most people deciding what you are going to tackle in the first place) is much more important than just expecting things to happen for you. Short-term thinking might be what is ingraining this type of behavior in us, its difficult to see past 2-4 or 8 weeks. its hard to think short and long term. being able to prioritize or understand how the ebbs and flows work on different time frames. sometime one can get caught up and expect things to just happen to you, but in the long term this is a very bad strategy and one which you are not a deciding factor. Some people rather work two day jobs and save instead of maybe just working one and learning programming with the time they save. Then maybe in a couple of months they could use their knowledge to start something or get a much higher paying job with a higher ability to move up. At the same time, in the case of some traders, some are so focused on a day trade that they forget to focus on the how the bigger picture might be acting or vice versa. A swing trader can miss a lot of day trading opportunies (weed stocks as of late for example have been crazy volatile and good for swing traders, especially shorting.) because he might be so focused on the long picture.
But the most interesting part of strategy is actually going through with the strategies you set forth. Just like the lumberjack who cuts much more than his counterpart might not see a reason to learn or improve on his strategy, or worse he might see his progress as a signal that he can slow down and take a break, people who develop good strategies can get complacent, and ethier stop acting on their strategies or just stop caring. Of course there is a strategy for this too, which involves having principles and a strong life philosophy, but high level super-overarching strategies like this can take a lot of time to develop and instill, as they must protrude through everything you do.