Yesterday I got a good question from a reader. His email was too long to paste in full, but the gist of the question was that he was trying to do a lot of self improvement stuff at once, and his attention seemed to be too spread to really made a big impact in any one area. How do I manage to make a lot of progress, he asked?
Over the past dozen years or more I've tackled a huge number of self improvement projects. Not all of them have been complete successes, of course, but generally I've been satisfied with my progress. Through that time I've come to classify these projects into three different categories, which helps me coordinate them all.
The first category of self improvement projects are instant changes, which I wrote about here. These are mainly habits that binary, meaning that whether or not you're doing them is very easily measured. Either you're waking up early in the morning or you're not, either you're smoking or you're not, either you're eating healthy or you're not. The process of tackling these sorts of improvements is easy-- you come up with a compelling reason why you MUST switch ("If I don't quit smoking, I will die ten years early and miss seeing my grandchildren") and then you just do it. We have a natural inclination to draw these things out and make them into big deals, tapering them and scheduling them, but I find it much easier to just start now and do it completely. The biggest changes I've made in this category are waking up early, always being on time, and not eating unhealthy food.
When attempting instant changes, do one at a time unless two are complementary. For example, you could quit soda AND sugary food since they're related, but I wouldn't try qutting sugary food and waking up early at the same time. Will power is a strong force and can be harnessed for really impactful permanent change, but it works best with its attention undivided. So make a big instant change, wait 20-30 days or so until it's effortless (possibly more for some habits) and then move on to the next one.
The second category is long term gradual change. Here I'm talking about lifelong bodies of knowledge that you accumulate which end up shaping you, or personality characteristics that you develop over a lifetime. The distinguishing feature of these changes isn't that they MUST be done over a lifetime, but simply that they can be. A great example might be financial habits.
While you could tackle small subsets of the problem as instant changes ("I will save and invest $500 every month!"), the real benefit comes from a lifetime of learning and gradual improvement. Other examples would be conversation skills, optimism, or physical fitness. Multiple long term changes can be done concurrently because they don't require too much focus. If you read one book a month about conversation skills and related topics, and keep some of what you learn in mind while you go through your everyday life, you'll become a better conversationalist as you age.
Despite long term gradual changes being the least glamorous of the changes, I think that they might be the most important. Although all three categories are applicable, the post I wrote about always getting better is mainly about these sorts of changes.
The last category is focused change. In my life these tend to be short or medium term projects. Focused change projects are things like learning a language, learning to program, and learning pickup. You can tell that something is a focused change project and not a gradual change project when you realize that you won't get anywhere unless you go really hard on it for some period of time. One Italian tape a week for three years will leave you never speaking Italian, but doing ninety tapes in ninety days will leave you with a lifetime of SOME understanding and speaking Italian.
Most people, especially those who are really into self improvement, will try to do many focused change projects at once. I've tried this too, but it doesn't really work. In my experience, the best strategy is to have one and only one focused change project at a time. Always be working on something, but never work on more than one. From February to March this year, mine was pickup. Then I quit that and started taking violin lessons. Once I got to where I wanted to be in violin, I stopped that and started working on learning Chinese. If I had tried to do all three of these things at once, I doubt I would have gotten anywhere. Instead I focus on one at a time, switch it to gradual improvement once I've developed a base competency, and then focus on the next one.
When you use this three-tiered system, you can get a lot done in a short amount of time. In the past five months, while I brushed up on my pickup skills, learned to play the violin, and started to redevelop my Chinese, I also made several instant changes. I began waking up early (7:20am with no alarm today), being on time to everything, using a todo list, drinking tea every morning, flossing every night, taking vitamins every day, reaching out to one person every day, tracking my time, reading every day, and analyzing my day every night. For long term gradual changes, I've read several books on conversation, continued to practice poker, begun to read some fiction to train my mind to write fiction, become a better programmer, learned to cook a few new things, learned a few handyman skills, and become a better motorcycle rider.
Humans have an incredible capacity for self improvement, but unless it's coordinated properly and kept on pace, we risk overloading ourselves or slacking off completely. By understanding the three speeds of self improvement we can tackle a lot at once and lock in permanent changes as we move along.
Photo is a Chinese flash card. I've actually switched to Japanese since writing this, since I'll be going there in a few months.
So, to recap:
What do you mean by reach out to one person a day and how do you do it?
I think this is one of your better posts. Also coincides with a lot of thinking I've been doing recently. As a manager one of the most fascinating questions to me is, given a person who needs to make a certain change to improve in his work, and given that person wants to make that change, how do I help him make the change?
I think this is a nice summary. I've been reading a bunch on habits and habit formation to try to understand better how to coach others in habit change (and how to improve my own habit formation.) This is helpful food for thought.
Incidentally, search and post referrals are starting to work really well - the "read this next" recommended your 3-year-old post on instant habit change, and Sebastian's post on inspiration, and the instant habit change post recommended Seb's post on eating well. All of which I'm now reading. Super useful.
I hear this super awesome dude writes a blog that talks a lot about managing people at www.madeofmetaphors.com.. :)
Otherwise, Difficult Conversations by the Harvard Communication Project guys (Stone and others, I think) is required reading. Getting to Yes by the same people is great too. Five Dysfunctions of a Team by Lencioni is great. After that I trend towards the Buddhist and psychotherapeutic ends of the spectrum.
Mark Epstein's work is universally excellent, he's a psychotherapist and Buddhist. I draw a lot on my experience with psychoanalysis as a manager, and I think I couldn't manage anyone at all without very strong belief in the Theory of Mind and spending a ton of my mental energy trying to empathize with people as an active process, mapping my experience onto theirs.
Belief in the Freudian subconscious is a big part of that, for me, being able to see people behaving in certain ways when they swear they aren't doing it on purpose, especially when these behaviors are subtle individually but constitute patterns in the larger scheme of things. Being able to hypothesize that the drive comes from an unknown subconscious is essential to me in figuring out how then to work with people. I don't know what I'd do otherwise.
P.S. Always happy to talk over direct messages about management stuff, and if you have specific things you're curious about post in my community section with post ideas and I'll see what I can do!
Thanks for the recommendations, I'll definitely be lookign at your site more often.
I read Difficult Conversations recently. It's funny because I didn't enjoy the book in the beginning because it seemed too simple but then when they lay it all out, it was brilliant. Also read Getting to Yes a while back but should probably give it another go. Ordered Dysfunctions of a Team now.
Funny, I studied Buddhist philosophy and did a lot of meditation but never thought about directly applying to that managing people but makes sense...
I'll second Difficult Conversations. Brian recommended it to me, and I'd say it's one of the best books I've ever read.
Hope you don't mind me butting in, even though I'm not Brian.
This blog is excellent.
I actually disagree with the only focus on one thing philosophy. I find I get bored with a subject if I spend more than an hour or so a day learning it. When it comes to learning new skills, languages, etc I work much better if I focus on 2-3 things each for 30-60 minutes per day. That seems to be about the maximum amount of time I can actively focus on learning something before my mind starts drifting. Granted if my work day was spaced out differently I could probably spend 4-5 hours per day on one topic with hour breaks but with a 9-5 I tend to front load all of my learning in the mornings.
is there some post about waking up early? I didn't find it.
All along I was doing a focused change! I promised myself that I will learn how to play the piano. LOL! Thanks for the article.
Very interesting article at a very appropriate time: New Year Resolutions. How do you analyze your day? How do you rank a good vs a bad day?
I like this. I may have to re-evaluate my new year goals based on some of these ideas. I have a hard time limiting myself to just a few or ONE idea, but I do understand that this prevents me from accomplishing things as well.
Language differs from the focused change projects in its ability to overlap with other such projects. If I wanted to learn to both play the violin and speak Chinese, I would move to China and spend my time with non-English speaking Chinese people who play the violin. Pick-up or any other skill can be learned with the same two-for-one efficiency when combined with language learning.
The flashcard + podcast self-learning approach, while useful as a supplement when starting, is a flawed pedagogy on its own. Not only is the pace of learning a fraction of what immersion learning reaps, but relying on a top-down approach to a naturally bottom-up system creates inefficiencies (baidu "把信封上了“ and see how many results you get). Whereas in an immersion setting you learn actual, current usage among native speakers.
For the average learner, the podcast approach is fine. They are unlikely to leave their cozy bubble within the American middle class or make use of language skills anyway. But the returns to becoming proficient (~2 years of immersion, even for a difficult language like Chinese) are much, much greater than having barely comprehensible speaking skills and knowing a few hundred words (several months of 'Italian tapes' or podcast learning). The former takes about 8 times longer but can be overlapped with other focused changed projects, and at the end you can honestly say you speak Chinese/Korean/Italian/etc etc at a fully professional level. WHY ISN'T TYNAN DOING THIS?
If learning language was my top priority, I would definitely do this. Since it's not, I try to just spend around 30 minutes a day keeping myself moving forward with language learning. A pattern that I've noticed is that my daily learning seems to not really be giving me much in terms of gains, but then when I do spend a few weeks/months in the country, I very quickly start using all the stuff I've learned
Lost opportunity cost by moving to the country in question? While everyone idealizes that they can do everything necessary for their business online in a lot of cases it just isn't true. Sometimes the most efficient way isn't the best on an individual level.
Scott Young for example talks about how lectures are his least favorite way to learn material, but when I've been reading reports all day and generally doing very mentally taxing work they're the lowest energy way of learning. May be the least efficient but it's better than the alternative which is nothing.
Yes, I agree. Preference curves and personal circumstance vary. But for the geographically flexible among us, the opportunity cost of language learning is much lower than comparably valuable skills because of efficiencies from this 'learning overlap'.
Skills require time to attain. There's no magic pill to become stronger; we have to go to the gym consistently. If you want to learn Russian, you need to study, practice, and probably spend some time in Russia. If you want to become a better writer you can learn some good practices, but you ultimately have to produce a lot of writing before you'll be any good.
But what about habits like diet change, sleeping habits, and introversion? While we may not all be able to speak Russian, we all have the innate ability to wake up early in the morning. Our mouths will all accept healthy food. We all have the physical ability to walk up to a stranger and begin talking.
Why do these switches often take so long to flip? Why is it a gradual struggle, rather than an instant change?
INTERNAL SCORECARD #7
This is the seventh internal scorecard I've posted. I put these up as a way for you to see what production and productivity actually look like (with the up's and down's, and so on), and as a measure for myself of what's happening and what's to come.
This covers 30 June to 6 July.
DALIO OF THE WEEK
"Goals are the things that you really want to achieve, while desires are things you want that can prevent you from reaching your goals—as I previously explained, desires are typically first-order consequences. For example, a goal might be physical fitness, while a desire is the urge to eat good-tasting, unhealthy food (i.e., a first-order consequence) that could undermine you obtaining your fitness goal. So, in terms of the consequences they produce, goals are good and desires are bad." -- Ray Dalio, Principles, p27